Keynote Speaker

Prof.Chih-Huang Weng, Dept. of Civil and Ecological Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan

Title: Fe0-aggregate-activated persulfate process for decolorization of azo dyes
Synthetic azo dyes are the largest category of synthetic dyes used in dyeing and printing industries due to their versatility, synthetic origin, and chemical stability. Most azo dyes are toxic and potentially carcinogenic, and therefore can pose harmful effects on the health of human and the ecosystem. Under the increasingly stringent effluent standards, conventional biological processes are usually inadequate for treating azo dyes as either the dyeing chemicals are non-biodegradable or toxic intermediates are produced as a result of the treatment. The destructive advanced oxidation processes have gained growing attention in the treatment of dyeing wastewaters. Commercially available Fe0 aggregates have long been used in the remediation of groundwater, which are cost-effective, user-friendly (easily separated and stored), reusable, and are effective for catalyzing Fenton and persulfate (PS) oxidations for dye degradation. A closer examination on the characteristics of persulfate oxidation behaviors activated via Fe0 aggregates is of great interest. Decolorization efficiency of an Fe0 aggregates/persulfate (PS/Fe0) process was closely related to the operating parameters (PS concentration, Fe0 dosage, pH, temperature, and inorganic salts) and the structural complexity of dye molecules. The PS/Fe0 in conjunction with sonolysis and heat to enhance the oxidative power of such process is discussed. A two-step reaction model, including a slow surface heterogeneous and a fast-homogeneous aqueous reaction was proposed for the system at alkaline environment. The presence of Fe2+ and Fe2+ ions identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggests a direct oxidation of the dye on the surface of the Fe0 aggregates. The Fe0 aggregates function as a key activator in the breakdown of chromospheres structure of the azo group due mainly to the presence of active radicals (SO4–•). A short period of ultrasound irradiation could significantly enhance the destruction of dye molecules. Heat enhanced not only ADMI decolorization, but also COD removal. The process controlled at high elevated temperature (PS/Fe0/55oC) enabled macromolecular organic compounds to be degraded to low molecular weight intermediates, including organic acids. Fe0-activated PS appears to be a viable technology for the treatment of textile wastewaters containing synthetic azo direct dyes.

Dr.Rohitha Weerasinghe, Engineering, Design and Mathematics, University of the West of England, England

Title:Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines for Urban Applications: A Critical Diffuser Study
Abstract:There is continued pressure to maximise the use of renewable energy sources due to depleting fossil fuels and concerns over the effect they are having on our environment. Wind turbines provide a clean energy source with potential use irrespective of the hour of the day. Being able to harness this energy in cities as well as in rural areas increases the range of options for producing renewable energy using wind. Installed capacity of wind energy has risen substantially in the past few years. The majority of this capacity is rural onshore and offshore installations. Wind generation, especially for onsite consumption in populated areas is substantially low. This is mainly due to the restricted wind turbine heights and low wind speeds in addition to poor performance of turbines. Poor performance of the wind turbines is mainly due to two reasons. One is that the turbines installed in urban areas are designed without taking into account the complex nature of the wind resource at roof level. The other is that the difficulty in estimating the wind resource in an urban area there has been poor placement of the turbines. 
      Standard horizontal axis wind turbines do not perform well under the characteristically low wind speeds of the cities. The turbulent nature of the wind also affects power production. Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWTs), the subject of the present study, could provide an economically viable solution to this problem.  These turbines are set out to increase the mass flow rate through the turbine through pressure gradients. Increases in mass flow rate leads to increase in energy production and efficiency. A higher mass flow rate results in a higher power production. The critical element in this design is the diffuser, that demands critical analysis and design.
      This paper aims to determine an optimal design for a diffuser focusing on keeping costs low. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to design a diffuser based on optimal angle and length. These are compared to a standard wind turbine to determine the feasibility. A critical analysis of existing methods of performance enhancement of wind turbines is present. Computational fluid dynamics based simulation technique is used to design and analyse the diffuser performance that will effectively increase the wind speed, hence the power output of the turbine. The results of the simulations are compared with wind tunnel tests. Analysis of diffuser performance based on bare wind data is present. Using a modified blade element momentum theory method to determine power output of the diffuser augmented wind turbine resulted in an annual production of 2.593MW which is a 23% increase compared to bare wind turbines. The study shows that the optimum geometry for a diffuser for velocity increase is 0.75m in length at a 70o angle. This created a 34.15% increase in velocity. The increase in velocity was dependent on the separation along the diffuser wall. A cost effective diffuser augmentation increases the potential of turbine wind turbine applications in urban environments.

Prof./Dr. Zhimin Qiang, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Title: Optimal design and energy-saving operation of UV reactor for disinfection of secondary water supply
     The discovery of anti-chlorine pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., Cryptosporidium and Giardia) in water sources and the detection of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water bring about a big challenge for the traditional chlorine disinfection process. Because of its high efficiency in inactivating Cryptosporidium and Giardia and little DBPs generation, UV technology has been increasingly employed for drinking water disinfection all over the world. Nonetheless, the efficiency of UV disinfection during practical applications depends on the specific configuration of a UV disinfection reactor, reactor operation and maintenance, and water quality and flow rate.
     To ensure a high efficiency of the UV disinfection reactor in practical applications, an accurate evaluation of the reactor performance is necessary. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were adopted to evaluate the UV reactor performance and the key steps included: 1) establishing a geometric model based on the UV reactor configuration and generating meshes across the entire computational domain; 2) selecting an appropriate turbulent model for hydrodynamics modeling and setting velocity boundary conditions; 3) selecting an appropriate radiation model and setting radiation boundary conditions; and 4) activating a discrete phase model, setting the delivery pattern of simulating micro particles, compiling a user-defined function to integrate UV doses along the particle trajectories.
     First of all, the accuracies of various radiation models were evaluated with an in-situ fluence rate distribution measurement platform, and the results indicated that the fluence rate distribution in a UV reactor could be predicted accurately with a calibrated discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model (calibration factor = 0.8). The microbial inactivation efficiencies predicted by the CFD simulation procedure developed in this study (i.e., with Realizable k-e turbulent model, calibrated DO radiation model and Lagragian approach of the discrete phase model) agreed well with those measured by experimental tests.
     Then, the above CFD simulation procedure was employed to optimize the configuration of a 3-lamp UV disinfection reactor, with a focus on the lamp arrangement and the adjustment of inlet/outlet internal diameter. Both theoretical deduction and CFD simulation proved that the reactor minimum UV dose (Dmin) was superior to the traditional reduction equivalent dose (RED) as an indicator of the reactor performance during the optimized configuration of a UV reactor. In general, a reactor with normal positioned lamps (i.e., NOR reactor) had a larger Dmin value and thus a better performance than that with reverse positioned lamps (i.e., REV reactor). The NOR-0.4-75 (0.4 = ratio of the distance between the lamp and reactor axes to the reactor radius, 75 = inner diameter of the reactor inlet (mm)) reactor had the largest Dmin, mainly because the influent flow was well dispersed by the lamps located right below the reactor inlet. The UV reactor with an optimized configuration achieved a 47-100% increment in the maximum disinfection flow rate, corresponding to an energy saving efficiency of 32-50%.
     The application of UV disinfection to secondary water supply (SWS) systems has become a prevalent practice in China’s cities in recent years. However, the highly fluctuating flow rates render the regular operation of a UV disinfection reactor (i.e., lighting all the lamps all the time) a considerable waste of energy. Therefore, an economical running strategy based on periodical adjustments of the lamp output power (LOP) was developed for a UV disinfection reactor employed in the SWS systems. The daily 24 h were divided into 6 time periods according to the daily flow rate variation pattern, and a critical flow rate (Qc) was determined for each period for the individual lamp mode verification. The lamp mode assessment results indicated that for a constant LOP, the best reactor performance was always achieved through the lamp switching mode rather than through the power adjusting mode. Sequential combination of the verified lamp modes with proper LOPs for the 6 periods resulted in an economical running strategy for the UV disinfection reactor (Figure 1). This strategy could reduce the reactor operation cost by 32% without any adverse effect on the disinfection efficiency, which corresponded to a daily electrical energy cut of 4.8 kWh.
Figure 1 The economical-running strategy with periodically adjusted LOPs and the predicted hourly REFs of the UV disinfection reactor with the regular- or economical-running strategy.